Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2016
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Basis of Presentation
The consolidated financial statements and related notes have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”) and include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All material intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated finance statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Such management estimates include allowance for doubtful accounts, estimates of product returns, warranty expense, inventory valuation, valuation allowances of deferred taxes, stock-based compensation expenses and fair value of warrants. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and on assumptions that it believes are reasonable. The Company assesses these estimates on a regular basis; however, actual results could materially differ from those estimates.
Concentration of Risk Related to Third-party Suppliers
We depend on a limited number of third-party suppliers for the materials and components required to manufacture our products. A delay or interruption by our suppliers may harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition, and could also adversely affect our future profit margins. In addition, the lead time needed to establish a relationship with a new supplier can be lengthy, and we may experience delays in meeting demand in the event we must change or add new suppliers. Our dependence on our suppliers exposes us to numerous risks, including but not limited to the following: our suppliers may cease or reduce production or deliveries, raise prices, or renegotiate terms; we may be unable to locate a suitable replacement supplier on acceptable terms or on a timely basis, or at all; and delays caused by supply issues may harm our reputation, frustrate our customers, and cause them to turn to our competitors for future needs.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company recognizes and discloses the fair value of its assets and liabilities using a hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to valuations based upon unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to valuations based upon unobservable inputs that are significant to the valuation (Level 3 measurements). Each level of input has different levels of subjectivity and difficulty involved in determining fair value.
The carrying amounts of the Company’s financial assets and liabilities, including cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable, and accrued liabilities approximate fair value because of the short maturity of these instruments. The carrying value of the Company’s loan payable and convertible notes payable approximates fair value based upon borrowing rates currently available to the Company for loans with similar terms.
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents. As of December 31, 2016, and 2015, the Company held no cash equivalents.
The Company’s policy is to place its cash with high credit quality financial instruments and institutions and limit the amounts invested with any one financial institution or in any type of instrument. Deposits held with banks may exceed the amount of insurance provided on such deposits. The Company has not experienced any losses on its deposits of cash.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount and are not interest bearing. The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of its customers to make required payments. The Company makes ongoing assumptions relating to the collectability of its accounts receivable in its calculation of the allowance for doubtful accounts. In determining the amount of the allowance, the Company makes judgments about the creditworthiness of customers based on ongoing credit evaluations and assesses current economic trends affecting its customers that might impact the level of credit losses in the future and result in different rates of bad debts than previously seen. The Company also considers its historical level of credit losses. As of December 31, 2016 and 2015, there was no allowance for doubtful accounts.
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or market value. Inventory is determined to be salable based on demand forecast within a specific time horizon, generally eighteen months or less. Inventory in excess of salable amounts and inventory which is considered obsolete based upon changes in existing technology is written off. At the point of recognition, a new lower cost basis for that inventory is established and subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the restoration or increase in that new cost basis.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are recorded at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization are provided using the straight-line method over the useful life as follows:
Accounting for Website Development Costs
The Company capitalizes certain external and internal costs, including internal payroll costs, incurred in connection with the development of its website. These costs are capitalized beginning when the Company has entered the application development stage and cease when the project is substantially complete and is ready for its intended use. The website development costs are amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of three years.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
Long-lived assets, such as property and equipment, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to future undiscounted net cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated future cash flows, an impairment charge is recognized in the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the fair value of the asset. Assets to be disposed of would be separately presented in the condensed balance sheets and reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell, and no longer depreciated. The assets and liabilities of a disposed group classified as held for sale would be presented separately in the appropriate asset and liability sections of the condensed balance sheets.
Debt Discount and Debt Issuance Costs
Debt discounts and debt issuance costs incurred in connection with the issuance of debt are capitalized and amortized to interest expense based on the related debt agreements using the straight-line method. Unamortized discounts are netted against long-term debt.
In accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Paragraph 815-15-25-1 the conversion feature and certain other features are considered embedded derivative instruments, such as a conversion reset provision, a penalty provision and redemption option, which are to be recorded at their fair value as its fair value can be separated from the convertible note and its conversion is independent of the underlying note value. The Company records the resulting discount on debt related to the conversion features at initial transaction and amortizes the discount using the effective interest rate method over the life of the debt instruments. The conversion liability is then marked to market each reporting period with the resulting gains or losses shown in the statements of operations.
In circumstances where the embedded conversion option in a convertible instrument is required to be bifurcated and there are also other embedded derivative instruments in the convertible instrument that are required to be bifurcated, the bifurcated derivative instruments are accounted for as a single, compound derivative instrument.
The Company follows ASC Section 815-40-15 (“Section 815-40-15”) to determine whether an instrument (or an embedded feature) is indexed to the Company’s own stock. Section 815-40-15 provides that an entity should use a two-step approach to evaluate whether an equity-linked financial instrument (or embedded feature) is indexed to its own stock, including evaluating the instrument’s contingent exercise and settlement provisions. The adoption of Section 815-40-15 has affected the accounting for (i) certain freestanding warrants that contain exercise price adjustment features and (ii) convertible bonds issued by foreign subsidiaries with a strike price denominated in a foreign currency.
The Company evaluates its convertible debt, options, warrants or other contracts, if any, to determine if those contracts or embedded components of those contracts qualify as derivatives to be separately accounted for in accordance with paragraph 810-10-05-4 and Section 815-40-25 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. The result of this accounting treatment is that the fair value of the embedded derivative is marked-to-market each balance sheet date and recorded as either an asset or a liability. In the event that the fair value is recorded as a liability, the change in fair value is recorded in the consolidated statement of operations as other income or expense. Upon conversion, exercise or cancellation of a derivative instrument, the instrument is marked to fair value at the date of conversion, exercise or cancellation and then that the related fair value is reclassified to equity.
The Company utilizes the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to compute the fair value of the derivative and to mark to market the fair value of the derivative at each balance sheet date. The Black-Scholes option-pricing model includes subjective input assumptions that can materially affect the fair value estimates. The expected volatility is estimated based on the most recent historical period of time equal to the remaining contractual term of the instrument granted.
Income taxes are provided in accordance with ASC No. 740, “Accounting for Income Taxes”. A deferred tax asset or liability is recorded for all temporary differences between financial and tax reporting and net operating loss carry forwards. Deferred tax expense (benefit) results from the net change during the period of deferred tax assets and liabilities.
Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates on the date of enactment.
The Company is no longer subject to tax examinations by tax authorities for years prior to 2013.
The Company recognizes revenue from product sales upon shipment as long as evidence of an arrangement exists, the fee is fixed or determinable, collection of the resulting receivable is reasonably assured and title and risk of loss have passed. If those criteria are not met, then revenue will not be recognized until all of the criteria are satisfied.
For any product in its original, undamaged and unmarked condition, with its included accessories and packaging along with the original receipt (or gift receipt) within 30 days of the date the customer receives the product, the Company will exchange it or offer a refund based upon the original payment method.
The Company accounts for funds received from crowdfunding campaigns and pre-sales as a liability on the consolidated balance sheets as the investments made entitle the investor to apply these funds towards future shipments once the product has been developed and available for commercial use.
Research and Development Costs
Research and development costs are charged to expense as incurred. These costs consist primarily of salaries and direct payroll-related costs. It also includes purchased materials and services provided by independent contractors, software developed by other companies and incorporated into or used in the development of our final products. Research and development expenses for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 were $686,095 and $1,694,521, respectively.
Advertising costs are charged to sales and marketing expenses and general and administrative expenses as incurred. Advertising expenses, which are recorded in sales and marketing and general and administrative expenses, totaled $98,219 and $40,673 for the year ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation in accordance with ASC Topic 718, “Compensation – Stock Compensation” (“ASC 718”) which establishes financial accounting and reporting standards for stock-based employee compensation. It defines a fair value based method of accounting for an employee stock option or similar equity instrument. Accordingly, stock-based compensation is recognized in the consolidated statements of operations as an operating expense over the requisite service period. The Company uses the Black-Scholes option pricing model adjusted for the estimated forfeiture rate for the respective grant to determine the estimated fair value of stock-based compensation arrangements on the date of grant and expenses this value ratably over the requisite service period of the stock option. The Black-Scholes option pricing model requires the input of highly subjective assumptions. Because the Company’s stock options have characteristics significantly different from those of traded options, and because changes in the subjective input assumptions can materially affect the fair value estimate, in management’s opinion, the existing models may not provide a reliable single measure of the fair value of the Company’s stock options. In addition, management will continue to assess the assumptions and methodologies used to calculate estimated fair value of stock-based compensation. Circumstances may change and additional data may become available over time, which could result in changes to these assumptions and methodologies for future grants, and which could materially impact the Company’s fair value determination.
The Company accounts for share-based payments to non-employees in accordance with ASC 505-50 “Equity Based Payments to Non-Employees”. If the equity instrument is a stock option, the Company uses the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine the fair value. Assumptions used to value the equity instruments are consistent with equity instruments issued to employees as the terms of the awards are similar. The Company recognizes the fair value of the equity instruments as expense over the term of the service agreement and revalues that fair value at each reporting period over the vesting periods of the equity instruments.
The Company provides a limited warranty for its analyzers and sensors for a period of 1 year from the date of shipment that such goods will be free from material defects in material and workmanship. The Company has assessed the historical claims and, to date, warranty claims have not been significant. The Company will continue to assess the need to record a warranty accrual at the time of sale going forward.
The Company and its collaborative partners are active participants in the collaborative arrangements and both parties are exposed to significant risks and rewards depending on the commercial success of the activity. The Company records all expenses related to collaborative arrangements as research and development expense in the consolidated statements of operations as incurred.
Net Loss per Share
Basic net loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per common share is determined using the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period, adjusted for the dilutive effect of common stock equivalents. In periods when losses are reported, which is the case for the year ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 presented in these consolidated financial statements, the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding excludes common stock equivalents because their inclusion would be anti-dilutive.
The Company had the following common stock equivalents at December 31, 2016 and 2015:
The Company has evaluated events that occurred subsequent to December 31, 2016 and through the date the financial statements were issued.
Certain prior year amounts in the consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto have been reclassified where necessary to conform to the current year presentation. These reclassifications did not affect the prior period total assets, total liabilities, stockholders' deficit, net loss or net cash used in operating activities.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the FASB issued a comprehensive new revenue recognition standard that will supersede nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under U.S. GAAP. The standard’s core principle (issued as ASU 2014-09 by the FASB), is that a company will recognize revenue when it transfers promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. These may include identifying performance obligations in the contract, estimating the amount of variable consideration to include in the transaction price and allocating the transaction price to each separate performance obligation. The new guidance must be adopted using either a full retrospective approach for all periods presented in the period of adoption or a modified retrospective approach. In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-14, which defers the effective date of ASU 2014-09 by one year, and would allow entities the option to early adopt the new revenue standard as of the original effective date. This ASU is effective for public reporting companies for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017. The standard permits the use of either the retrospective or cumulative effect transition method. The Company has evaluated the standard and does not expect the adoption will have a material effect on its consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-15, “Presentation of Financial Statements-Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40): Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern.” ASU 2014-15 provides guidance on management’s responsibility to evaluate whether there is substantial doubt about an organization’s ability to continue as a going concern and to provide related footnote disclosures. For each reporting period, management will be required to evaluate whether there are conditions or events that raise substantial doubt about a company’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year from the date the financial statements are issued. The amendments in ASU 2014-15 are effective for annual reporting periods ending after December 15, 2016, and for annual and interim periods thereafter. Early adoption is permitted. The Company has elected to adopt the methodologies prescribed by ASU 2014-15. The adoption of ASU 2014-15 had no material effect on its financial position or results of operations.
In March 2015, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2015-03, “Interest - Imputation of Interest (Subtopic 835-30): Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs. The amendments in this ASU require that debt issuance costs related to a recognized debt liability be presented in the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of that debt liability, consistent with debt discounts. The recognition and measurement guidance for debt issuance costs are not affected by the amendments in this ASU. The amendments are effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption of the amendments is permitted for financial statements that have not been previously issued. The amendments should be applied on a retrospective basis, wherein the balance sheet of each individual period presented should be adjusted to reflect the period-specific effects of applying the new guidance. Upon transition, an entity is required to comply with the applicable disclosures for a change in an accounting principle. These disclosures include the nature of and reason for the change in accounting principle, the transition method, a description of the prior-period information that has been retrospectively adjusted, and the effect of the change on the financial statement line items (i.e., debt issuance cost asset and the debt liability). The Company adopted ASU 2015-03 during the year ended December 31, 2016.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-11, “Inventory (Topic 330): Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory”, which modifies existing requirements regarding measuring inventory at the lower of cost or market. Under current inventory standards, the market value requires consideration of replacement cost, net realizable value and net realizable value less an approximately normal profit margin. The new guidance replaces market with net realizable value defined as estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal and transportation. This eliminates the need to determine and consider replacement cost or net realizable value less an approximately normal profit margin when measuring inventory. The standard is required to be adopted for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within that annual period, which is our fiscal year 2018. The amendment is to be applied prospectively with early adoption permitted. The Company is in the process of evaluating the effect of the new guidance on its consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842).” Under ASU 2016-02, lessees will be required to recognize, for all leases of 12 months or more, a liability to make lease payments and a right-of-use asset representing the right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. Additionally, the guidance requires improved disclosures to help users of financial statements better understand the nature of an entity’s leasing activities. This ASU is effective for public reporting companies for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted, and must be adopted using a modified retrospective approach. The Company is in the process of evaluating the effect of the new guidance on its consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
In April 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, “Compensation – Stock Compensation” (topic 718). The FASB issued this update to improve the accounting for employee share-based payments and affect all organizations that issue share-based payment awards to their employees. Several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment award transactions are simplified, including: (a) income tax consequences; (b) classification of awards as either equity or liabilities; and (c) classification on the statement of cash flows. The updated guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption of the update is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the new standard.
In April 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-10, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers: Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing” (topic 606). In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-08, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers: Principal versus Agent Considerations (Reporting Revenue Gross verses Net)” (topic 606). These amendments provide additional clarification and implementation guidance on the previously issued ASU 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers”. The amendments in ASU 2016-10 provide clarifying guidance on materiality of performance obligations; evaluating distinct performance obligations; treatment of shipping and handling costs; and determining whether an entity’s promise to grant a license provides a customer with either a right to use an entity’s intellectual property or a right to access an entity’s intellectual property. The amendments in ASU 2016-08 clarify how an entity should identify the specified good or service for the principal versus agent evaluation and how it should apply the control principle to certain types of arrangements. The adoption of ASU 2016-10 and ASU 2016-08 is to coincide with an entity’s adoption of ASU 2014-09, which we intend to adopt for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the new standard.
In May 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-12, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Narrow-Scope Improvements and Practical Expedients”, which narrowly amended the revenue recognition guidance regarding collectability, noncash consideration, presentation of sales tax and transition and is effective during the same period as ASU 2014-09. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the new standard.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments” (“ASU 2016-15”). ASU 2016-15 will make eight targeted changes to how cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-15 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017. The new standard will require adoption on a retrospective basis unless it is impracticable to apply, in which case it would be required to apply the amendments prospectively as of the earliest date practicable. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of ASU 2016-15 on its consolidated financial statements.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other than Inventory”, which eliminates the exception that prohibits the recognition of current and deferred income tax effects for intra-entity transfers of assets other than inventory until the asset has been sold to an outside party. The updated guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption of the update is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the new standard.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230)”, requiring that the statement of cash flows explain the change in the total cash, cash equivalents, and amounts generally described as restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. This guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim reporting periods therein, beginning after December 15, 2017 with early adoption permitted. The provisions of this guidance are to be applied using a retrospective approach which requires application of the guidance for all periods presented. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the new standard.
Management does not believe that any recently issued, but not yet effective accounting pronouncements, when adopted, will have a material effect on the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef